• Is the initial value or piece of data which is used to initiate an algorithm or process. In commodities, it refers to the part of the crop or crop inventory which is set aside for subsequent planting purposes.

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 Black scholes option model: Is the seminal work about options pricing models. It was developed by Fisher Black and Myron Scholes. It initially focused on securities prices. Subsequently, it was refined by Fisher Black for the futures markets. Most options models depart from this Seed. This important work was published by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in the May-June 1973 edition of The Journal of Political Economy. It laid the foundation for the quantitative analysis and practical calculation of puts and calls. The model indicated that options would eliminate risk from stock portfolios subject to some assumptions. The lognormal model stated that option values could be determined by using the current stock price, time left to expiration, the strike or exercise price, the variance of the stock's rate of return (standard deviation applied) and the risk-free rate of interest.

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