• (1) In securities, selling one issue and buying another.
(2) In foreign exchange, buying a currency spot and simultaneously selling it forward.
• An arrangement whereby two companies lend to each other on different terms, e.g. in different currencies, and/or at different interest rates, fixed or floating.
• Is a customized financial transaction between two or more counterparties. However, banks or brokerage firms often act as intermediaries or assume some of the risk of the total transaction as well. A swap is engineered between counterparties who agree to make periodic payments or adjusts to one another. Swaps cover interest rate, equity, commodity and currency products. They can be simple floating for fixed exchanges or complex hybrid products with multiple option features. Swaps are not exclusively OTC transactions because listed instruments are often include in the risk management of the position. Often managers evaluate the relative merits of conducting a swap (OTC) or a hedge predicated on listed instruments. The interaction between these two markets promotes greater financial efficiencies.
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| ||Amortizing interest rate swap: Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates rise (decline).|
| ||Arbitrage: The simultaneous buying and selling of a security at two different prices in two different markets, resulting in profits without risk. Perfectly efficient markets present no arbitrage opportunities. Perfectly efficient markets seldom exist.Strictly defined, buying something where it is cheap and selling it where it is dear; for example, a bank buys 3-month CD money in the U.S. market and sells 3-month money at a higher rate in the Eurodollar market. In the money market, often refers: (1) to a situation in which a trader buys one security and sells a similar security in the expectation that the spread in yields between the two instruments will narrow or widen to his profit, (2) to a Swap between two similar issues based on an anticipated change in yield spreads, and (3) to situations where a higher return (or lower cost) can be achieved in the money market for one currency by utilizing another currency and swapping it on a fully hedged basis through the foreign-exchange market.Is a form of trading which attempts to profit by discrepancies in price due to location, funding, volatility, communications, response to information, or other differences. Typically, the price differences are small and only the quickest, most cost efficient or funding efficient parties participate. Compare with Risk Arbitrage.|
| ||Asset swap: An interest rate Swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to provide a better match with its liabilities.|
| ||Basis swap: See interest rate Swap.|
| ||Bundles: Are variations of strip trades whereby a trader or risk manager can place a series of calendar month contracts in one transaction. Packs can be bought or sold. They are quoted in quarter basis points from the previous settlement price. These transactions expedite credit market positions and Swap hedges and adjustments. One can also trade bundles on a forward basis comparable to other money and credit market instruments.|
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