
Volatility   • Volatility is an indicator of expected risk. It demonstrates the degree to which the market price of an asset, rate, or index fluctuates from average. Volatility is calculated by finding the standard deviation from the mean, or average, return.   • A measure of risk based on the standard deviation of investment fund performance over 3 years. Scale is 19; higher rating indicates higher risk. Also, the standard deviation of changes in the logarithm of an asset price, expressed as a yearly rate. Also, volatility is a variable that appears in option pricing formulas. In the option pricing formula, it denotes the volatility of the underlying asset return from now to the expiration of the option.   • Is the annualized standard deviation of the natural logarithms of asset returns.    Embedded terms in definition   Asset Average Expiration Index Market Mean Natural logarithm Option Rating Return Risk Scale Standard deviation Underlying asset Underlying Variable
   Referenced Terms   Arbitrage: The simultaneous buying and selling of a security at two different prices in two different markets, resulting in profits without risk. Perfectly efficient markets present no arbitrage opportunities. Perfectly efficient markets seldom exist.Strictly defined, buying something where it is cheap and selling it where it is dear; for example, a bank buys 3month CD money in the U.S. market and sells 3month money at a higher rate in the Eurodollar market. In the money market, often refers: (1) to a situation in which a trader buys one security and sells a similar security in the expectation that the spread in yields between the two instruments will narrow or widen to his profit, (2) to a swap between two similar issues based on an anticipated change in yield spreads, and (3) to situations where a higher return (or lower cost) can be achieved in the money market for one currency by utilizing another currency and swapping it on a fully hedged basis through the foreignexchange market.Is a form of trading which attempts to profit by discrepancies in price due to location, funding, Volatility, communications, response to information, or other differences. Typically, the price differences are small and only the quickest, most cost efficient or funding efficient parties participate. Compare with Risk Arbitrage.
  Arch: Is Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity. It is a time series approach that models Volatility as function of previous returns.
  Capital asset pricing model: Abbreviated CAPM. The basic theory that links together risk and return for all assets. The CAPM predicts a relationship between the required return, or cost of common equity capital, and the nondiversifiable risk of the firm as measured by the beta coefficient.Abbreviated CAPM. An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a riskfree security plus a risk premium.Is a tool that relates an asset's expected return to the market's expected return. It combines the concepts of efficient capital markets with risk premiums. The idea of capital market efficiency assumes immediate instantaneous response to perfect or near perfect information. The risk premiums relate an investment to the market's riskfree or riskless rate of return. Typically, this riskfree rate is viewed in terms of principal safety for short term U.S. government obligations. Here, beta relates the Volatility of an asset to the market.
  Coefficient of variation: Is a statistic which is used to determine the degree of relative dispersion. It extends standard deviation analyses. By definition, standard deviations are statistical measures of absolute dispersion. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the variability of two different asset classes or assets within those classses. It is computed by dividing the standard deviation of Asset I by the mean of Asset I. Similarly, the standard deviation of Asset II is divided by the mean of Asset II and so forth. These multiple coefficient of variation can then be compared against one another. By using the coefficient of variation, an analyst can compare variation among relatively high and low priced securities. Similarly, the analyst can evaluate the Volatility differences between commodities, currencies, stocks and bond markets.Abbreviated CV. A measure of relative dispersion used in comparing the risk of assets with differing expected returns. It is the ratio of the standard deviation divided by the mean (or expected return). It tells you the number of units of risk per unit of return.
  Convertible: Is a security which can be exercised into another security. Examples of convertibles are bonds, preferred stocks, warrants, and some swap agreements. Convertibles are related to options because they have specified spans for exercise, conversion price levels which approximate strike prices, and there are inherent premium structures. These premiums are related to Volatility considerations.
   Related Terms   Expected volatility Historic volatility Implied volatility Reward to volatility ratio Term structure of interest rates and volatility Volatility risk Volatility trades


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